Korean J Fam Pract. 2017; 7(3): 315-321  https://doi.org/10.21215/kjfp.2017.7.3.315
The Association of Oral Contraceptive Use and Bone Mineral Density in Korean Premenopausal Women: A Cross Sectional Study from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2010
Yeo Jin Choi, Ha Yoon Kim, Dong Hyun Kim, Hee Kyung Lim, Yong Kyun Roh, Min Kyu Choi*
Department of Family Medicine, Hallym University Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, Korea
Min Kyu Choi
Tel: +82-2-829-5270, Fax: +82-2-829-5365
E-mail: abbi21c@hotmail.com
Received: May 13, 2016; Revised: August 16, 2016; Accepted: September 1, 2016; Published online: June 20, 2017.
© Korean Academy of Family Medicine. All rights reserved.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of oral contraceptives (OCs) on bone mineral density according to the duration of OC use.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that used data of 4,068 participants aged 19–50 years. The participants were premenopausal women who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey 2008–2010. The study participants were classified into three categories: those who had never used OC, those with short-term usage (≤1 years), and those with long-term usage (>1 years). Logistic regression analysis was performed to compare each of the groups’ total femur bone mineral density (BMD), femoral neck BMD, and lumbar spine BMD by adjusting any confounding factors such as age, height, weight, alcohol consumption, smoking, exercise, energy intake, income, menarche age, and parity.
Results: Out of the participants of 4,068 women, 3,620 participants (89.0%) had never used OC, 352 participants (8.7%) were short-term OC users, and 96 participants (2.3%) were long-term OC users. After adjusting the confounding factors, we found that the duration of OC use is not associated with BMD values. Women who had never given birth and were long-term OC users had high BMD values. Although women who had never given birth and were long-term OC users seemed to have slightly higher BMD values than the others, the P-values were still not significant.
Conclusion: This study suggests that the duration of OC use is not associated with BMD values.
Keywords: Oral Contraceptives; Bone Density; Premenopause
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