Korean J Fam Pract. 2017; 7(3): 394-399  https://doi.org/10.21215/kjfp.2017.7.3.394
The Association between Andropause Symptom and Phase Angle on Bioelectric Impedance Analysis
Min Hwangbo, Hyun-Soo Jeon, Ju-Hye Jung, Keun-Sang Yum*
Department of Family Medicine, Uijeongbu St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu, Korea
Keun-Sang Yum
Tel: +82-31-820-3179, Fax: +82-31-848-3179
E-mail: yks6303@catholic.ac.kr
Received: May 9, 2016; Revised: September 2, 2016; Accepted: September 17, 2016; Published online: June 20, 2017.
© Korean Academy of Family Medicine. All rights reserved.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Background: The androgen deficiency in aging males (ADAM) questionnaire is a tool for evaluating the symptoms of ‘andropause’, whereas bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) can provide information regarding the human body cells’ healthy or unhealthy and cellular senescence. This study aimed to determine the clinical utility of the phase angle on BIA for the diagnosis and treatment of andropause by analyzing the association between the symptoms of andropause and the phase angle.
Methods: From March to August 2015, we used statistical analysis to determine the aforementioned association in men aged ≥35 years who visited the medical center at the local college as outpatients for symptoms of andropause; the men completed the ADAM questionnaire and underwent BIA and a blood test.
Results: Subjects who reported a decrease in libido (ADAM 1) had significantly higher fasting blood sugar and hemoglobin A1C levels than those who reported no change in libido (P=0.004 and 0.028, respectively); however, there was no significant difference in the phase angle. Additionally, there was no significant difference in the phase angle in subjects who reported a decrease in erectility (ADAM 7), compared to those who reported no change . Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the association between the total score of the ADAM-Korea questionnaire and the blood test, phase angle, body composition, and body measurement values. Results showed that the higher the total scores of the ADAM-Korea, the lower the phase angle; however, this association was not statistically significant.
Conclusion: No significant association between the symptoms of andropause, as assessed using the ADAM questionnaire and the phase angle on BIA was found in men aged over 35 years.
Keywords: Androgen Deficiency in Aging Males (ADAM) Questionnaire; Phase Angle; Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis; Andropause
  1. Park DS, Park SY, Shin SM. Review of the latest oriental and traditional clinical articles and protocol about male sexual dysfunction. Korean J Orient Physiol Pathol 2013; 27: 530-9.
  2. Korea Society for Sexual Medicine and Andrology. Text book of men's health. 2nd ed. Paju: Koonja Press; 2013. p. 253-328.
  3. Kim JJ, Moon DG. Recent update on late-onset hypogonadism in males. Korean J Androl 2006; 24: 107-14.
  4. Park DS, Kim TB, Ku JH, Kim SW, Paick JS. Correlation between androgen deficiency on aging males questionnaire and aging males' symptoms scale and their relationship with serum testosterone. Korean J Urol 2008; 49:1035-40.
  5. Hemmingsson E, Uddén J, Neovius M. No apparent progress in bioelectrical impedance accuracy: validation against metabolic risk and DXA. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2009; 17: 183-7.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Barbosa-Silva MC, Barros AJ. Bioelectrical impedance analysis in clinical practice: a new perspective on its use beyond body composition equations. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2005; 8: 311-7.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  7. Kim SW, Oh SJ, Paick JS, Kim SC. Development of the Korean-translation of androgen deficiency in aging males (ADAM) questionnaire. Korean J Urol 2004; 45: 674-9.
  8. Lukaski HC, Johnson PE, Bolonchuk WW, Lykken GI. Assessment of fatfree mass using bioelectrical impedance measurements of the human body. Am J Clin Nutr 1985; 41: 810-7.
  9. Foster KR, Lukaski HC. Whole-body impedance--what does it measure? Am J Clin Nutr 1996; 64(3 Suppl): 388S-96S.
  10. Werner AA. The male climacteric: report of 273 cases. JAMA 1939; 112:1141-3.
  11. Morley JE, Charlton E, Patrick P, Kaiser FE, Cadeau P, McCready D, et al. Validation of a screening questionnaire for androgen deficiency in aging males. Metabolism 2000; 49: 1239-42.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  12. Heinemann LAJ, Saad F, Thiele K, Wood-Dauphinee S. The aging males'symptoms rating scale: cultural and linguistic validation into English. Aging Male 2001; 4: 14-22.
  13. Kim YC. Hormonal replacement therapy in men: Korean practical recommendations on testosterone supplementation in the aging male. Aging Male 2001; 4(Suppl 1): s30-4.
  14. Park HJ, Park NC. Male sexual dysfunction questionnaires. Korean J Androl 2010; 28: 78-84.
  15. Sohn DW, Kim SI, Kim SD, Kim DB, Kim JS, Song KH, et al. The effect of cardiovascular risk factors on the patient with erectile dysfunction and diabetes and the response to phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. Korean J Androl 2009; 27: 31-5.
  16. Park HJ, Ye JW, Park CS, Park NC. Influence of metabolic syndrome on lateonset male hypogonadism symptoms and serum total testosterone level. Korean J Androl 2008; 26: 11-7.
  17. Park HJ, Park BK, Kim JM, Park NC. The relationship between serum total testosterone and clinical symptoms of late-onset hypogonadism in aging males. Korean J Androl 2006; 24: 35-9.
  18. Moon DG. The risk factors, diagnosis and treatment guideline of erectile dysfunction. J Korean Med Assoc 2015; 58: 443-51.
  19. Christ-Crain M, Mueller B, Gasser TC, Kraenzlin M, Trummler M, Huber P, et al. Is there a clinical relevance of partial androgen deficiency of the aging male? J Urol 2004; 172: 624-7.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  20. Lin YC, Hwang TI, Chiang HS, Yang CR, Wu HC, Wu TL, et al. Correlations of androgen deficiency with clinical symptoms in Taiwanese males. Int J Impot Res 2006; 18: 343-7.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  21. Kyle UG, Bosaeus I, De Lorenzo AD, Deurenberg P, Elia M, Manuel Gómez J, et al. Bioelectrical impedance analysis-part II: utilization in clinical practice. Clin Nutr 2004; 23: 1430-53.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  22. Navigante A, Morgado PC, Casbarien O, Delgado NL, Giglio R, Perman M. Relationship between weakness and phase angle in advanced cancer patients with fatigue. Support Care Cancer 2013; 21: 1685-90.
    Pubmed CrossRef

This Article