Korean J Fam Pract. 2017; 7(3): 400-404  https://doi.org/10.21215/kjfp.2017.7.3.400
A Correlation between Secondhand Smoking and Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection
Jong-Myeong Park1, Hyun-Woo Kim2,*, Seok-Hwan Lee1, Do-Kyoung Park1, Eun-Sook Park1
1Department of Family Medicine, Daegu Medical Center, Daegu; 2Department of Hana General Hospital, Cheongju, Korea
Hyun-Woo Kim
Tel: +82-43-230-6114, Fax: +82-43-235-5300
E-mail: jamesinfm@gmail.com
Received: May 10, 2016; Revised: September 22, 2016; Accepted: October 2, 2016; Published online: June 20, 2017.
© Korean Academy of Family Medicine. All rights reserved.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Background: Helicobacter pylori infection and smoking are known as risk factors for peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. We performed a crosssectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; 1999–2000) data and evaluated the relationship between secondhand smoking and the prevalence of H. pylori infection.
Methods: We analyzed 3,335 nonsmokers among the civilian, noninstitutionalized U.S. population in the 1999–2000 NHANES data, who were more than 20 years of age, and had provided data through standard questionnaires and serum cotinine levels. We defined nonsmokers as those having a serum cotinine level <10 ng/mL. H. pylori infection was evaluated with an immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. We analyzed the distribution of H. pylori infection according to the following variables: demographics, vitamin C intake, number of drinks of alcohol per year, cigarette smoking status, time since quitting, pack-years, and serum cotinine levels.
Results: Secondhand smoking, as measured by increased serum cotinine levels, was associated with an increased prevalence of H. pylori infection (prevalence odds ratio=2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.4–4.5). There was evidence of a dose-response correlation between H. pylori and secondhand smoking, as indicated by the serum cotinine level.
Conclusion: Secondhand smoking is associated with the prevalence of H. pylori infection.
Keywords: Secondhand Smoking; Helicobacter pylori; Serum Cotinine Levels
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