Korean J Fam Pract. 2017; 7(3): 418-423  https://doi.org/10.21215/kjfp.2017.7.3.418
Relation between Smartphone Usage and Sleep Pattern and Deprivation: A Survey on High School Students
Minji Shim, Gyeong-Yoon Han, Byungkook Kim, So-Youn Kim, Sung-Min Cho*, Kyung-Shik Lee, Young-Kyu Park, Young-Ah Choi
Department of Family Medicine, Bundang Jesaeng Hospital, Seongnam, Korea
Sung-Min Cho
Tel: +82-31-779-0152, Fax: +82-31-779-0827
E-mail: drchosm@dmc.or.kr
Received: May 10, 2016; Revised: September 13, 2016; Accepted: September 27, 2016; Published online: June 20, 2017.
© Korean Academy of Family Medicine. All rights reserved.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Background: Smartphones have been used widely since they became popular a few years ago in Korea. It has been suggested that smartphones use a display that might affect the human brain with regard to sleep patterns. However, few studies have been conducted to investigate the relationship between smartphone use and sleep. Therefore, this study focused on the possibility that light stimulation from smartphones could affect sleep pattern and deprivation in adolescence.
Methods: A survey of 200 adolescents from a high school in Gyeongnam was performed in 2015. The following instruments were included in the survey: Smartphone Addiction Scale, Sleep Deprivation Scale, and Physical Activity Questionnaire. After collection of the data, a nonparametric statistical approach (Mann-Whitney test) was used to determine the differences between students who presented smartphone addiction and normal users, as well as between smartphone users and non-users.
Results: The rate of smartphone addiction was low among the students in this study; however, smartphone addiction and sleep deprivation had a positive relation (Spearman rho=0.383, P<0.001). Smartphone users at risk of addiction showed earlier sleep times and more sleep deprivation than normal users with statistical significance (P<0.001). Smartphone users also presented a tendency toward an earlier sleep time when compared to non-users.
Conclusion: This study showed a positive association between sleep deprivation and smartphone addiction in a high school student sample. This result provides support to the hypothesis that smartphone use affects sleep pattern and deprivation in adolescence via light stimulation, which would therefore explain smartphone addiction increasing sleep deprivation.
Keywords: Smartphone; Sleep Deprivation; Adolescent
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