Korean J Fam Pract. 2017; 7(4): 533-543  https://doi.org/10.21215/kjfp.2017.7.4.533
Association between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Deficiency and Albuminuria in the 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Mi-Ryung Cho1, Du-na Hwang1, Young-min Park2,*
1Department of Family Medicine, Severance Hospital, Seoul; 2Department of Family Medicine, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Ilsan, Korea
Young-min Park
Tel: +82-31-900-0438, Fax: +82-31-900-0343
E-mail: steelmess@naver.com
Received: March 24, 2016; Revised: August 16, 2016; Accepted: August 24, 2016; Published online: August 20, 2017.
© Korean Academy of Family Medicine. All rights reserved.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Background: Vitamin D and albuminuria have diverse impacts on health, and growing evidence suggests that vitamin D receptor activation may have antiproteinuric effects. So, we investigated whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level is associated with albuminuria in Korea.
Methods: The subjects were 3,350 adults participating in the 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013–2014. In this crosssectional study, subjects were categorized into the five groups according to their serum 25(OH)D level: mild deficiency, moderate deficiency, severe deficiency, insufficiency, and sufficiency. Vitamin D level was also classified into quartiles. We categorized albuminuria status into four groups according to urine albumin creatinine ratio levels: normal, high-normal, microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratios (OR) for albuminuria.
Results: In order to evaluate the OR for albuminuria in the context of decreasing vitamin D levels, we adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, and estimated glomerular filtration rate in model 1, and for diabetes and hypertension in model 2. The ORs for microalbuminuria in subjects with mid-low vitamin D levels over those with high levels were 1.65 in model 1 and 1.64 in model 2. In model 2, the OR for total albuminuria in subjects with mid-low vitamin D levels over those with high levels was 1.64.
Conclusion: This study showed an inverse association between mid-low serum 25(OH)D levels and albuminuria. However, this study was unable to meaningfully demonstrate a stepwise increase in albuminuria with decreasing vitamin D levels. Additional studies are required to elucidate the relationship between vitamin D and albuminuria.
Keywords: Vitamin D; Albuminuria; Kidney
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