Korean J Fam Pract. 2017; 7(4): 544-550  https://doi.org/10.21215/kjfp.2017.7.4.544
Relationship between Intraocular Pressure and Smoking, Alcohol Consumption in Korean Adults
Ji-Wan Nam, Jung-Im Gwak*, Hyung-Joon An, So-Jung Yun, Jun-Seob Shin, Hyun-Jung Choi
Department of Family Medicine, Anyang Sam General Hospital, Anyang, Korea
Jung-Im Gwak
Tel: +82-31-467-9161, Fax: +82-31-449-0151
E-mail: euridiche@hanmail.net
Received: March 13, 2016; Revised: October 12, 2016; Accepted: October 17, 2016; Published online: August 20, 2017.
© Korean Academy of Family Medicine. All rights reserved.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Background: Many studies have reported on the relationship between smoking, alcohol consumption, and intraocular pressure (IOP). However, the association remains unclear. Furthermore, no study has been conducted in Korea yet. Thus, we examined whether they are related to the IOPs of Korean adults.
Methods: We used the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (2008–2012) from 18,410 individuals. ANCOVA and t-test were conducted to analyze baseline characteristics. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to analyze the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and IOP. We performed a multiple logistic regression analysis and t-test to evaluate the impacts of smoking and drinking frequencies on IOP.
Results: The results confirmed that smoking, drinking, blood pressure, body mass index, and hematocrit level correlated with IOP. The participants who smoked and drank in little amounts showed higher IOP than those who did not. However, the difference in IOP was not statistically significant. In contrast, the participants who smoked and drank beyond moderate amounts all showed higher IOPs than those observed in nonsmoking and non-drinking participants, with a statistically significant difference. We showed that alcohol had the biggest impact on the increase in IOP in Korean population. The participants in the two groups divided according to median hematocrit value showed higher IOPs than those observed in the nonsmoking and non-drinking groups. However, the difference in IOP was not statistically significant.
Conclusion: Smoking and alcohol consumption correlated with IOP in the Korean adults. Alcohol consumption most significantly influenced the increase in IOP.
Keywords: Intraocular Pressure; Smoking; Alcohol; Hematocrit
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