Korean J Fam Pract. 2017; 7(4): 569-574  https://doi.org/10.21215/kjfp.2017.7.4.569
The Relationship between the Amount of Sodium Intake and Bone Mineral Density in Korean Adolescents and Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010−2011
Dong-Hwi Shin, Yeon Ji Lee*, Ji-Ho Choi, Ji-hong Lee, Hyeong-Jin Lee, Eun-Jeong Lee
Department of Family Medicine, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon, Korea
Yeon Ji Lee
Tel: +82-32-890-2240, Fax: +82-32-890-2195
E-mail: dawndusk@naver.com
Received: July 1, 2016; Revised: October 27, 2016; Accepted: October 28, 2016; Published online: August 20, 2017.
© Korean Academy of Family Medicine. All rights reserved.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Background: Osteoporosis greatly affects one’s quality of life, and its prevalence is increasing steadily. Genetic and environmental factors concurrently contribute to the genesis of osteoporosis. Among the environmental factors, dietary factors are also important. We aimed to analyze the association between the amount of sodium intake and bone mineral density in the Korean population.
Methods: We included 7,858 adolescents and adults aged 12 to 79 years who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2011. We assessed the association between the amount of sodium intake and bone mineral density using linear regression analysis, after adjusting confounding factors, such as age, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, education, and family income.
Results: A statistically significant negative relationship was found between the amount of sodium intake and bone mineral density in the study population. After stratifying the study population according to age group, this finding was significant in both the male and female teenagers and in the females aged 50 to 59 years.
Conclusion: A significant negative relationship exists between the amount of sodium intake and bone mineral density, especially in teenagers and females aged 50 to 59 years.
Keywords: Sodium, Dietary; Bone Density; Osteoporosis; Bone Remodeling
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