Korean J Fam Pract. 2017; 7(6): 830-836  https://doi.org/10.21215/kjfp.2017.7.6.830
Breakfast Frequency and Vitamin D Status in South Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013-2014
Soo Young Yoo, Sun Taek Hong, Jeong Hee Yang*
Department of Family Medicine, Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon, Korea
Jeong Hee Yang
Tel: +82-33-258-9206, Fax: +82-33-258-2165
E-mail: yjh221@kangwon.ac.kr
Received: March 7, 2017; Revised: June 17, 2017; Accepted: August 3, 2017; Published online: December 20, 2017.
© Korean Academy of Family Medicine. All rights reserved.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Background: A high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency has been reported in Korea. This study aimed to determine the association between vitamin D level and breakfast skipping patterns in Korean adults.
Methods: We analyzed a representative sample of 3,448 adults (≥20 years old) using data from the 2013–2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Based on an eating behavior questionnaire, study participants were categorized into four groups, according to frequency of breakfast intake per week over the preceding year: group A (5 to 7 times per week), group B (3 to 4), group C (1 to 2), and group D (almost never). We measured vitamin D levels using the serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D test. We used logistic regression analysis to calculate the odds ratio of vitamin D deficiency by subgroup and evaluate P-value trends.
Results: Participants who skipped breakfast had a higher risk of vitamin D deficiency than those who consumed breakfast (P<0.0001).
Conclusion: Breakfast skipping was associated with a higher risk of vitamin D deficiency. Large cohort studies are required to further investigate the importance of breakfast consumption in the prevention of vitamin D deficiency.
Keywords: Breakfast; Vitamin D
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