Korean J Fam Pract. 2017; 7(6): 877-884  https://doi.org/10.21215/kjfp.2017.7.6.877
Coffee Consumption and Arterial Stiffness in Korean Adults
Seung-A Kim1 , Eun-Ju Sung1,*, Cheol-Hwan Kim1 , Ho-Cheol Shin1 , Yoo-Soo Chang2 , Ji-Yeung Jo1 , Seung-Min Lee1 , Sae-Mi Kang1
Departments of 1Family Medicine and 2Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Eun-Ju Sung
Tel: +82-2-2001-2277, Fax: +82-2-2001-1260
E-mail: eunjusung68@gmail.com
Received: March 8, 2017; Revised: May 22, 2017; Accepted: July 26, 2017; Published online: December 20, 2017.
© Korean Academy of Family Medicine. All rights reserved.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Background: Coffee is a popular beverage that is heavily consumed in Korea and worldwide. Studies on the associations between coffee consumption and arterial stiffness are rare in Korea. This study examined the possible association between coffee consumption and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) as a subclinical atherosclerosis indicator in Korean adults.
Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 22,005 Korean males and females aged 20–70 who completed a food frequency questionnaire and underwent a health checkup including measurement of baPWV between January 2013 and December 2015.
Results: Compared with <1 cup/day coffee consumption, the difference in baPWV was -3.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], -11.85–4.62) for the highest category (median, 5 cups per day), -7.89 (95% CI, -12.83–-2.59) for the second highest category (median, 3–5 cups per day), and -5.34 (95% CI, -9.44–-1.25) for the third highest category (median, 1–3 cups per day) in multivariate logistic regression analysis (Model 2, P for quadratic trend=0.008). Looking at separate outcomes, coffee consumption was nonlinearly associated with baPWV. However, this correlation was stronger in men than in women (P for quadratic trend=0.001 vs. 0.934, Model 2).
Conclusion: In a large sample, moderate coffee consumption was associated with lower arterial stiffness. However, the association between coffee consumption and arterial stiffness may differ between men and women. Further prospective or interventional studies are needed to confirm a causal association.
Keywords: Coffee; Arterial Stiffness; Cardiovascular Disease; Cross-Sectional Study
References
  1. Grigg D. The worlds of tea and coffee: patterns of consumption. GeoJ 2002;57: 283-94.
    CrossRef
  2. Korea Customs and Trade Development Institute. Domestic market analysis on imported coffee [Internet]. Seoul: Korea Customs Service; 2015. [cited 2015 Aug 2].
  3. Syed IB. The effects of caffeine. J Am Pharm Assoc 1976; 16: 568-72.
    CrossRef
  4. Paul O, Lepper MH, Phelan WH, Dupertuis GW, Macmillan A, McKean H, et al. A longitudinal study of coronary heart disease. Circulation 1963; 28:20-31.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Riksen NP, Rongen GA, Smits P. Acute and long-term cardiovascular effects of coffee: implications for coronary heart disease. Pharmacol Ther 2009;121: 185-91.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Ding M, Bhupathiraju SN, Satija A, van Dam RM, Hu FB. Long-term coffee consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Circulation 2014; 129: 643-59.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  7. Choi Y, Chang Y, Ryu S, Cho J, Rampal S, Zhang Y, et al. Coffee consumption and coronary artery calcium in young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults. Heart 2015; 101: 686-91.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  8. Mahmud A, Feely J. Acute effect of caffeine on arterial stiffness and aortic pressure waveform. Hypertension 2001; 38: 227-31.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Park CW, Kim KS, Lee YS, Nam CW, Lee SH, Han SW, et al. Acute effects of caffeine on arterial stiffness in young healthy subjects. Korean Circ J 2005;35: 841-6.
    CrossRef
  10. Yamashina A, Tomiyama H, Arai T, Hirose K, Koji Y, Hirayama Y, et al. Brachialankle pulse wave velocity as a marker of atherosclerotic vascular damage and cardiovascular risk. Hypertens Res 2003; 26: 615-22.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Tsuchikura S, Shoji T, Kimoto E, Shinohara K, Hatsuda S, Koyama H, et al. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity as an index of central arterial stiffness. J Atheroscler Thromb 2010; 17: 658-65.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  12. Yamashina A, Tomiyama H, Takeda K, Tsuda H, Arai T, Hirose K, et al. Validity, reproducibility, and clinical significance of noninvasive brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity measurement. Hypertens Res 2002; 25: 359-64.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  13. Park HJ, Kim J, Han EJ, Park SE, Park CY, Lee WY, et al. Association of low baseline free thyroxin levels with progression of coronary artery calcification over 4 years in euthyroid subjects: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2016; 84: 889-95.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  14. Kim EC, Kim JS, Jung JG, Kim SS, Yoon SJ, Ryu JS. Effect of alcohol consumption on risk of hyperhomocysteinemia based on alcohol-related facial flushing response. Korean J Fam Med 2013; 34: 250-7.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  15. Chang Y, Kim BK, Yun KE, Cho J, Zhang Y, Rampal S, et al. Metabolicallyhealthy obesity and coronary artery calcification. J Am Coll Cardiol 2014;63: 2679-86.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  16. Ahn Y, Kwon E, Shim JE, Park MK, Joo Y, Kimm K, et al. Validation and reproducibility of food frequency questionnaire for Korean genome epidemiologic study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007; 61: 1435-41.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  17. Vaitkevicius PV, Fleg JL, Engel JH, O’Connor FC, Wright JG, Lakatta LE, et al. Effects of age and aerobic capacity on arterial stiffness in healthy adults. Circulation 1993; 88: 1456-62.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  18. Benetos A, Waeber B, Izzo J, Mitchell G, Resnick L, Asmar R, et al. Influence of age, risk factors, and cardiovascular and renal disease on arterial stiffness:clinical applications. Am J Hypertens 2002; 15: 1101-8.
    CrossRef
  19. Meaume S, Rudnichi A, Lynch A, Bussy C, Sebban C, Benetos A, et al. Aortic pulse wave velocity as a marker of cardiovascular disease in subjects over 70 years old. J Hypertens 2001; 19: 871-7.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  20. Greenberg JA, Chow G, Ziegelstein RC. Caffeinated coffee consumption, cardiovascular disease, and heart valve disease in the elderly (from the Framingham Study). Am J Cardiol 2008; 102: 1502-8.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  21. Merighi S, Benini A, Mirandola P, Gessi S, Varani K, Simioni C, et al. Caffeine inhibits adenosine-induced accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor, and interleukin-8 expression in hypoxic human colon cancer cells. Mol Pharmacol 2007; 72: 395-406.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  22. Li M, Handa S, Ikeda Y, Goto S. Specific inhibiting characteristics of tetramethylpyrazine, one of the active ingredients of the Chinese herbal medicine ‘Chuanxiong,’ on platelet thrombus formation under high shear rates. Thromb Res 2001; 104: 15-28.
    CrossRef
  23. Bydlowski SP, Yunker RL, Rymaszewski Z, Subbiah MT. Coffee extracts inhibit platelet aggregation in vivo and in vitro. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1987; 57:217-23.
    Pubmed
  24. Weng C, Yuan H, Tang X, Huang Z, Yang K, Chen W, et al. Age- and gender dependent association between components of metabolic syndrome and subclinical arterial stiffness in a Chinese population. Int J Med Sci 2012; 9:730-7.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  25. Burke AP, Farb A, Malcom G, Virmani R. Effect of menopause on plaque morphologic characteristics in coronary atherosclerosis. Am Heart J 2001;141(2 Suppl): S58-62.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  26. Cordero A, Alegria E. Sex differences and cardiovascular risk. Heart 2006;92: 145-6.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  27. Regitz-Zagrosek V, Lehmkuhl E, Mahmoodzadeh S. Gender aspects of the role of the metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Gend Med 2007; 4 Suppl B: S162-77.
  28. Fischer GM, Swain ML. Influence of contraceptive and other sex steroids on aortic collagen and elastin. Exp Mol Pathol 1980; 33: 15-24.
    CrossRef


This Article

e-submission

Archives