Korean J Fam Pract. 2017; 7(6): 885-891  https://doi.org/10.21215/kjfp.2017.7.6.885
Protein and Each Nutrient Intake of the Elderly According to the Family Type and Factors Affecting Protein Intake: The Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013-2014
June Hee Kim, Jeong Hee Yang*, Sunmi Kim, Hee Kon Shin, Soo Young Yoo, Soo Hyun Kim, Hyunwoo Kim
Department of Family Medicine, Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon, Korea
Jeong Hee Yang
Tel: +82-33-258-2401, Fax: +82-33-258-2418
E-mail: yjh221@kangwon.ac.kr
Received: March 8, 2017; Revised: September 7, 2017; Accepted: September 15, 2017; Published online: December 20, 2017.
© Korean Academy of Family Medicine. All rights reserved.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Background: Currently, with an increase in the aging population in Korea, there is a growing interest in healthy aging. This study aimed to compare the intake of protein and nutrients important in the prevention and management of geriatric frailty, classified by family type, and to analyze the factors affecting protein intake.
Methods: Using the data of the sixth Korea national health and nutrition examination survey (2013–2014), data regarding intake of protein and each nutrient in 1,587 people aged 65 years or older were gathered and classified based on family type, sex, and factors affecting protein intake. Multiple comparisons were made using the general linear model for analysis, and once classified, the data were analyzed using by the multivariate general linear model.
Results: Protein intake (grams/day) of the elderly living alone (mean±standard error, 47.91±1.47) and the elderly living with children (50.49±2.79) was lower than that of the elderly living with a spouse (59.73±1.18) (P<0.001). Although varying in accordance with groups, on the whole, nutrient intake was lowest in elderly women living alone. Protein intake was high in nondrinking and healthy elders, and in those consuming a greater amount of food, energy (calories), and lipids. On the contrary, it was low in those consuming a greater amount of carbohydrates.
Conclusion: Protein intake was low in the elderly living alone and the elderly living with children, and nutrient intake was lowest in elderly women living alone. The factors affecting protein intake in the elderly include drinking, health status, and intake of food, energy, lipids, and carbohydrates.
Keywords: Frailty; Elderly; Protein; Nutrient; Family
References
  1. 2015 Statistics of elderly in Korea [Internet]. Daejeon: Statistics Korea; 2015. [cited 2016 Jul 21].
    Available from: http://kostat.go.kr
  2. Kim CO, Kim MJ. Conceptual definition and operationalization of frailty. Korean J Fam Pract 2011; 1: 85-93.
  3. Fried LP, Tangen CM, Walston J, Newman AB, Hirsch C, Gottdiener J, et al. Frailty in older adults: evidence for a phenotype. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2001; 56: M146-56.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Gill TM, Williams CS, Tinetti ME. The combined effects of baseline vulnerability and acute hospital events on the development of functional dependence among community-living older persons. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1999; 54: M377-83.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Malafarina V, Uriz-Otano F, Iniesta R, Gil-Guerrero L. Sarcopenia in the elderly:diagnosis, physiopathology and treatment. Maturitas 2012; 71: 10914.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Bair MJ, Chen HL, Wu CH, Lee YK, Lin IT, Shih SC. Nutritional influences on age-related frailty. J Gerontol Geriatr Res 2016; 5: 328.
  7. Bartali B, Salvini S, Turrini A, Lauretani F, Russo CR, Corsi AM, et al. Age and disability affect dietary intake. J Nutr 2003; 133: 2868-73.
    Pubmed
  8. Martínez-Ramírez MJ, Delgado-Martínez AD, Ruiz-Bailén M, de la Fuente C, Martínez-González MÁ, Delgado-Rodríguez M. Protein intake and fracture risk in elderly people: a case-control study. Clin Nutr 2012; 31: 391-5.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Paddon-Jones D, Rasmussen BB. Dietary protein recommendations and the prevention of sarcopenia. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2009; 12: 86-90.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  10. Evans WJ, Cyr-Campbell D. Nutrition, exercise, and healthy aging. J Am Diet Assoc 1997; 97: 632-8.
    CrossRef
  11. Kim CO. Nutrition for the prevention and management of frailty. The Medicalnews. 2016 Mar 28. Korean.
  12. Lee KW, Lee YM, Kim JH. The health and nutritional status of low-income, alone-living elderly. Korean J Community Nutr 2000; 5: 3-12.
  13. Kim HY, Kim MH, Hong SG, Hwang SJ, Park MH. A study on the nutrient intake, health risk factors, blood health status in elderly Korean women living alone. Korean J Community Nutr 2005; 10: 216-23.
  14. Shin SK, Kim HJ, Choi BY, Lee SS. A comparison of food frequency for the elderly regarding different family types: based on community health survey for 2008. Korean J Nutr 2012; 45: 264-73.
    CrossRef
  15. Kwon MK. Comparative analysis of food intake according to the family type of senior citizens in Seoul area [dissertation]. Seoul: Hanyang Univ.;2013. Korean.
  16. Kim EM, Song YJ, Kim HS. Evaluation of eating habit and dietary intake by family type of seniors utilizing social welfare center in Seoul. Korean J Nutr 2007; 40: 753-61.
  17. Lim YJ, Choi YS. Dietary behaviors and seasonal diversity of food intakes of elderly women living alone as compared to those living with family in Gyeongbuk rural area. Korean J Community Nutr 2008; 13: 620-9.
  18. Lee YJ, Kwon MK, Baek HJ, Lee SS. Comparative analysis of food intake according to the family type of elderly women in Seoul area. J Nutr Health 2015; 48: 277-88.
    CrossRef
  19. Brioche T, Pagano AF, Py G, Chopard A. Muscle wasting and aging: Experimental models, fatty infiltrations, and prevention. Mol Aspects Med 2016;50: 56-87.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  20. Cesari M. Perspective: protein supplementation against sarcopenia and frailty: future perspectives from novel data. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2013; 14:62-3.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  21. Vanitallie TB. Frailty in the elderly: contributions of sarcopenia and visceral protein depletion. Metabolism 2003; 52(10 Suppl 2): 22-6.
    CrossRef
  22. 2015 Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans. Sejong: Ministry of Health and Welfare & The Korean Nutrition Society; 2015.
  23. Ma SH, Jeung KY, Hong SH, Shim EY, Yoo SH, Kim MY, et al. Correlation between frailty level and disability of the elderly and frailty related factors. Korean J Fam Med 2009; 30: 588-97.
    CrossRef
  24. Levers MJ, Estabrooks CA, Ross Kerr JC. Factors contributing to frailty: literature review. J Adv Nurs 2006; 56: 282-91.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  25. Kobayashi S, Asakura K, Suga H, Sasaki S. High protein intake is associated with low prevalence of frailty among old Japanese women: a multicenter cross-sectional study. Nutr J 2013; 12: 164.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  26. World Health Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, United Nations University. Protein and amino acid requirements in human nutrition [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization;2007. [cited 2016 Jul 21].
  27. Wolfe RR, Miller SL, Miller KB. Optimal protein intake in the elderly. Clin Nutr 2008; 27: 675-84.
    Pubmed CrossRef


This Article

e-submission

Archives