Korean J Fam Pract. 2017; 7(6): 892-897  https://doi.org/10.21215/kjfp.2017.7.6.892
Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Hearing Impairment in Korean Adults Over 40 Years-Old: Based on the Data from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013
Yu Rim Lee, Ji-Ho Choi*, Yeon-Ji Lee, Jeong Min Oh, Hyeun Jin Song, Nam Hee Youn
Department of Family Medicine, Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon, Korea
Ji-Ho Choi
Tel: +82-32-890-3547, Fax: +82-32-890-2195
E-mail: hilis84@nate.com
Received: March 9, 2017; Revised: June 10, 2017; Accepted: July 5, 2017; Published online: December 20, 2017.
© Korean Academy of Family Medicine. All rights reserved.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Background: Previous studies reported that smoking was associated with hearing impairment. However, the results were not consistent. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the effect of smoking on hearing impairment in Korean adults over 40 years of age.
Methods: This study included 4,212 participants over 40 years of age in the 2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Pure-tone audiometric testing was conducted and the frequencies tested were 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 kHz. Smoking status was categorized into two groups, smoking and non-smoking. The smoking group was divided according to number of cigarettes smoked smoked into 4 groups: 1–10, 11–20, and >20 cigarettes/day.
Results: In the smoking group, the prevalence of hearing impairment was increased (odds ratio [OR], 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.260–1.685). In the age-stratified analysis, smoking was associated with hearing impairment in those aged 50–69 years. Adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, diabetes, hypertension, regular exercise, education, and noise exposure, we found that the smoking group had significantly increased hearing impairment compared to the non-smoking group (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.514–2.283). In those aged 50–69 years, the OR was 2.07 (95% CI, 1.601–2.682). The increase in prevalence according to smoking level was more prevalent (OR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.582–3.645).
Conclusion: Smoking significantly influenced hearing impairment, and the risk increased greatly in those aged 50-69 years. There was a dose-response relationship between smoking level and prevalence.
Keywords: Hearing Loss; Smoking; Age; Sex
References
  1. Lin FR, Niparko JK, Ferrucci L. Hearing loss prevalence in the United States. Arch Intern Med 2011; 171: 1851-2.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  2. Korea Health Statistics 2012: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-3) [Internet]. Cheongju: Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2012. [cited 2012 Dec].
  3. Agrawal Y, Platz EA, Niparko JK. Prevalence of hearing loss and differences by demographic characteristics among US adults: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004. Arch Intern Med 2008; 168: 1522-30.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Cruickshanks KJ, Tweed TS, Wiley TL, Klein BE, Klein R, Chappell R, et al. The 5-year incidence and progression of hearing loss: the epidemiology of hearing loss study. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2003; 129: 1041-6.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Sousa CS, Castro Júnior Nd, Larsson EJ, Ching TH. Risk factors for presbycusis in a socio-economic middle-class sample. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2009; 75: 530-6.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Agrawal Y, Platz EA, Niparko JK. Risk factors for hearing loss in US adults:data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 to 2002. Otol Neurotol 2009; 30: 139-45.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  7. Noorhassim I, Rampal KG. Multiplicative effect of smoking and age on hearing impairment. Am J Otolaryngol 1998; 19: 240-3.
    CrossRef
  8. Gates GA, Cobb JL, D’Agostino RB, Wolf PA. The relation of hearing in the elderly to the presence of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk factors. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1993; 119: 156-61.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Jung SP, Kim SY, Lee TY, Cho YC, Lee DB. The correlation of cardiovascular risk factors and hearing loss. Korean J Occup Environ Med 1998; 10: 189202.
  10. Nakanishi N, Okamoto M, Nakamura K, Suzuki K, Tatara K. Cigarette smoking and risk for hearing impairment: a longitudinal study in Japanese male office workers. J Occup Environ Med 2000; 42: 1045-9.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Karlsmose B, Lauritzen T, Engberg M, Parving A. A five-year longitudinal study of hearing in a Danish rural population aged 31-50 years. Br J Audiol 2000; 34: 47-55.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  12. Gopinath B, Flood VM, McMahon CM, Burlutsky G, Smith W, Mitchell P. The effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on age-related hearing loss: the Blue Mountains Hearing Study. Ear Hear 2010; 31: 277-82.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  13. Ward WD. Endogenous factors related to susceptibility to damage from noise. Occup Med 1995; 10: 561-75.
    Pubmed
  14. Brant LJ, Gordon-Salant S, Pearson JD, Klein LL, Morrell CH, Metter EJ, et al. Risk factors related to age-associated hearing loss in the speech frequencies. J Am Acad Audiol 1996; 7: 152-60.
    Pubmed
  15. Chang J, Ryou N, Jun HJ, Hwang SY, Song JJ, Chae SW. Effect of cigarette smoking and passive smoking on hearing impairment: data from a populationbased study. PLoS One 2016; 11: e0146608.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  16. Sung JH, Sim CS, Lee CR, Yoo CI, Lee H, Kim Y, et al. Relationship of cigarette smoking and hearing loss in workers exposed to occupational noise. Ann Occup Environ Med 2013; 25: 8.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  17. Hong JW, Jeon JH, Ku CR, Noh JH, Yoo HJ, Kim DJ. The prevalence and factors associated with hearing impairment in the Korean adults: the 20102012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (observational study). Medicine (Baltimore) 2015; 94: e611.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  18. Kim JS, Yeh MH, Chun BY, Woo KH, Kang YS, Kim KY, et al. Effect of cigareet smoking on air-conduction hearing threshold level in adult men. Korean J Prev Med 1998; 31: 285-92.
  19. Matschke RG. Smoking habits in patients with sudden hearing loss. Preliminary results. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 1990; 476: 69-73.
    Pubmed
  20. Shammas NW. Epidemiology, classification, and modifiable risk factors of peripheral arterial disease. Vasc Health Risk Manag 2007; 3: 229-34.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  21. Dawes P, Cruickshanks KJ, Moore DR, Edmondson-Jones M, McCormack A, Fortnum H, et al. Cigarette smoking, passive smoking, alcohol consumption, and hearing loss. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 2014; 15: 663-74.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  22. Cruickshanks KJ, Klein R, Klein BE, Wiley TL, Nondahl DM, Tweed TS. Cigarette smoking and hearing loss: the epidemiology of hearing loss study. JAMA 1998; 279: 1715-9.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  23. Huxley RR, Woodward M. Cigarette smoking as a risk factor for coronary heart disease in women compared with men: a systematic review and metaanalysis of prospective cohort studies. Lancet 2011; 378: 1297-305.
    CrossRef
  24. Farley TM, Meirik O, Chang CL, Poulter NR. Combined oral contraceptives, smoking, and cardiovascular risk. J Epidemiol Community Health 1998; 52: 775-85.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  25. National Cancer Information Center [Internet]. Ilsan: National Cancer Center; 2016. [cited 2016 Mar 8].
  26. Suh KH. Updates in the smoking and smoking cessation of Korean women. Korean J Health Psychol 2007; 12: 695-713.
    CrossRef
  27. Park MB, Kim CB, Nam EW, Hong KS. Does South Korea have hidden female smokers: discrepancies in smoking rates between self-reports and urinary cotinine level. BMC Womens Health 2014; 14: 156.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef


This Article

e-submission

Archives