Korean J Fam Pract. 2017; 7(6): 898-903  https://doi.org/10.21215/kjfp.2017.7.6.898
Association of Coffee Consumption and Intestinal Metaplasia in Korean
Hyo-Jeong Eun, Chang-Ho Youn*, A-Sol Kim, Hae-Jin Ko, Bang-Ju Lee
Department of Family Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea
Chang-Ho Youn
Tel: +82-53-200-5791, Fax: +82-53-200-5480
E-mail: ychfm@knu.ac.kr
Received: March 9, 2017; Revised: July 25, 2017; Accepted: July 30, 2017; Published online: December 20, 2017.
© Korean Academy of Family Medicine. All rights reserved.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Background: Coffee is a popular beverage in Korea as can be observed from increasing consumption levels. We evaluated the association between coffee consumption and intestinal metaplasia (a premalignant gastric lesion).
Methods: Our cross-sectional study included 881 adults who visited the General Health Screening Center at the University Hospital between January 2013 and December 2013. Subjects were classified into four groups based on the amount and type of coffee consumed/day to compare the risk of intestinal metaplasia.
Results: Coffee consumption was associated with a significant increase in the risk of intestinal metaplasia (P for trend <0.001). After adjusting for sex, age, smoking, drinking alcohol, and atrophic gastritis, the risk of intestinal metaplasia was observed to be higher in the group drinking >4 cups of coffee/day than the group of non-coffee drinkers (odds ratio [OR], 13.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.95–65.47; P=0.001). Based on the type of coffee consumed, the OR of intestinal metaplasia was 16.60 (95% CI, 2.95–93.25; P=0.001) for filtered coffee and 12.81 (95% CI, 2.50–65.60; P=0.002) for instant coffee in the group consuming >4 cups of coffee/day compared to the group of non-coffee drinkers.
Conclusion: High levels of coffee consumption showed a significant association with increased risk of intestinal metaplasia with use of both filtered and instant coffee.
Keywords: Coffee; Intestinal Metaplasia; Instant Coffee; Filtered Coffee
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