Korean J Fam Pract. 2018; 8(2): 273-280  https://doi.org/10.21215/kjfp.2018.8.2.273
Associations between Groups with Cohabiting Parents, Single Parent, Orphan or Not, and Body Mass Index among South Korean Adolescents
Chunhwan Kim, Jun Ho Bang, Kwang Wook Jung, Ah Ra Koh, Hee Kwon Yu*
Department of Family Medicine, Dongsuwon General Hospital, Suwon, Korea
Hee Kwon Yu
Tel: +82-31-210-0114, Fax: +82-31-211-5145
E-mail: happyyhk78@naver.com
ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7998-1937
Received: March 22, 2017; Revised: May 29, 2017; Accepted: June 12, 2017; Published online: April 20, 2018.
© The Korean Academy of Family Medicine. All rights reserved.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Background: Obesity among South Korean Adolescents is increasing and is related to their heath and daily life in adulthood. There are a growing number of students with single parents these days. We evaluated the number of between adolescents with cohabiting single parents and their body mass index (BMI) and abnormal weight, including obesity.
Methods: This study was a secondary analysis of the data collected from the 2016 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. The sample included 65,528 adolescents. The questionnaires of the survey included sex , living with dual or single parents, orphan or other living condition, eating habits, physical activity, social economy status, and parents’ education. Adolescents were classified into four groups: cohabiting parents, single parent, orphan, and others; It was analyzed using chi-square test, t-test, analysis of variance, and binary logistic repression analysis using IBM SPSS 24.0 (IBM Co., USA) and R Program (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Austria).
Results: There were differences in the mean levels of BMI among groups, such as boys with cohabiting parents and those with single parents (21.4±3.6 kg/m2 and 21.7±3.8 kg/m2), those with cohabiting parents and others (21.4±3.6 kg/m2 and 29.1±3.5 kg/m2), those with single parents and orphans (20.5±3.3 kg/m2 and 20.5±3.3 kg/m2), and orphans and others (21.7±3.8 kg/m2 and 29.1±3.5 kg/m2); among girls, those with cohabiting parents and with single parents (20.6±2.9 kg/m2 and 20.9±3.0 kg/m2), those with dual parents and others (20.6±2.9 kg/m2 and 21.1±2.8 kg/m2), and orphans and others (20.7±3.3 kg/m2 and 21.1±2.8 kg/m2). The odds ratio of single parents to cohabiting parents was 1.076 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.004–1.153) and that of orphans was 0.692 (CI, 0.491–0.974) after adjustment.
Conclusion: Students living with single parents showed increased BMI and higher prevalence of overweight and obesity than those with cohabiting parents.
Keywords: Body Mass Index; Obesity; Adolescent; Parents; Divorce; Orphan
  1. Kim DM, Ahn CW. Definition and epidemiology of obesity. JKMA 2004;47: 289-97.
  2. Park MK, Lee HO. A comparative analysis on the environmental and dietary factors in Korean adult males classified by serum lipid profiles. Korean J Nutrition 2003; 36: 64-74.
  3. Kim DM, Ahn CW, Nam SY. Prevalence of obesity in Korea. Obes Rev 2005;6: 117-21.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF. Nelson textbook of pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier; 2007. p. 232-42.
  5. Barlow SE; Expert Committee. Expert committee recommendations regarding the prevention, assessment, and treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity: summary report. Pediatrics 2007; 120 Suppl 4:S164-92.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Ogden CL, Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Johnson CL. Prevalence and trends in overweight among US children and adolescents, 1999-2000. JAMA 2002;288: 1728-32.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  7. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among US children and adolescents, 1999-2010. JAMA 2012; 307: 483-90.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  8. Oh K, Jang MJ, Lee NY, Moon JS, Lee CG, Yoo MH, et al. Prevalence and trends in obesity among Korean children and adolescents in 1997 and 2005. Korean J Pediatr 2008; 51: 950-5.
  9. Xi B, Mi J, Zhao M, Zhang T, Jia C, Li J, et al. Trends in abdominal obesity among U.S. children and adolescents. Pediatrics 2014; 134: e334-9.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  10. Bahk J, Khang YH. Trends in childhood obesity and central adiposity between 1998-2001 and 2010-2012 according to household income and urbanity in Korea. BMC Public Health 2016; 16: 18.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  11. Imamura H, Izawa A, Kai R, Yokoseki O, Uchikawa S, Yazaki Y, et al. Trends over the last 20 years in the clinical background of young Japanese patients with coronary artery disease. Circ J 2004; 68: 186-91.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  12. Freedman DS, Mei Z, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS, Dietz WH. Cardiovascular risk factors and excess adiposity among overweight children and adolescents:the Bogalusa Heart Study. J Pediatr 2007; 150: 12-7.e2.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  13. Christakis NA, Fowler JH. The spread of obesity in a large social network over 32 years. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 370-9.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  14. Kaufman L, Karpati A. Understanding the sociocultural roots of childhood obesity: food practices among Latino families of Bushwick, Brooklyn. Soc Sci Med 2007; 64: 2177-88.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Frederick CB, Snellman K, Putnam RD. Increasing socioeconomic disparities in adolescent obesity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2014; 111: 1338-42.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  16. Byrne LK, Cook KE, Skouteris H, Do M. Parental status and childhood obesity in Australia. Int J Pediatr Obes 2011; 6: 415-8.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  17. Ministry of Health and Welfare. Korea youth risk behavior web-based survey [Internet]. Sejong: Ministry of Health and Welfare [cited 2016 Mar 11].
  18. Ahn HS. Textbook of Pediatrics, Hong CE. 7th ed. Seoul: Mirae N; 2012. p. 98, 1260-3.
  19. Yim KS, Lee TY, Kim YJ, Kang YH. Effects of obesity and body shape dissatisfaction on nutrient intake in Korean middle school students. Korean J Health Prom Dis Prev 2001; 1: 28-37.
  20. Biehl A, Hovengen R, Grøholt EK, Hjelmesæth J, Strand BH, Meyer HE. Parental marital status and childhood overweight and obesity in Norway: a nationally representative cross-sectional study. BMJ Open 2014; 4(6):e004502.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  21. Chen AY, Escarce JJ. Family structure and childhood obesity, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Cohort. Prev Chronic Dis 2010; 7:A50.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  22. Dorsey KB, Wells C, Krumholz HM, Concato J. Diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of childhood obesity in pediatric practice. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2005; 159: 632-8.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  23. Oh K, Jang MJ, Lee NY, Moon JS, Lee CG, Yoo MH, et al. Prevalence and trends in obesity among Korean children and adolescents in 1997 and 2005. Korean J Pediatr 2008; 51: 950-5.
  24. Joo MH. Adolescents health behavior and cardiovascular disease risk factors according to parents socio-economic status [dissertation]. Seoul: Yonsei Univ.; 2004. Korean.

This Article

Author ORCID Information

Social Network Service