Korean J Fam Pract. 2018; 8(3): 364-371  https://doi.org/10.21215/kjfp.2018.8.3.364
Lifestyle and Nutritional State According to Breakfast Frequency Level of Korean Adults: Using 2014 Korea National and Nutrition Examination Survey
Sung Rok Jeong1, Kyung Won Shim1,*, Hong Soo Lee1, Sang Wha Lee1, A Ri Byun1, Sun Hee Cho1, Hye Jin Chun2
1Department of Family Medicine, Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Seoul; 2Department of Family Medicine, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam, Korea
Kyung Won Shim
Tel: +82-2-2650-5165, Fax: +82-2-2654-2439
E-mail: ewhashim@ewha.ac.kr
ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8289-9301
Received: May 11, 2017; Revised: September 18, 2017; Accepted: October 7, 2017; Published online: June 20, 2018.
© The Korean Academy of Family Medicine. All rights reserved.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate lifestyle and nutritional status according to breakfast consumption frequency among Korean adults.
Methods: Data for 2,302 individuals aged 19–64 years from among respondents of the National Health and Nutrition Survey of Korea in 2014 were analyzed after excluding subjects who were treated for cancer or metabolic diseases. The subjects were classified into four groups according to the frequency of breakfast consumption for one week: extremely low-, low-, intermediate-, and high-frequency groups. All the data were analyzed by implementing analysis of covariance after weighting, by gender, age, residence, income, education level, occupation, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, exercise, stress, and family meals.
Results: The proportion of non-smokers was the highest among the four groups, while the proportions of those who consumed alcohol regularly, and those with exposure to stress were the lowest. The high-frequency group showed the highest percentage of energy intake from carbohydrates and the highest intake of potassium and thiamine. Nutrient intakes according to breakfast energy ratios were the highest for protein, calcium, phosphorus, thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin.
Conclusion: These results indicate that the frequency of breakfast consumption in Korean adults is positively correlated with healthy living habits, such as smoking cessation, reduced alcohol consumption, and the consumption of various nutrients and vitamins. Therefore, to maintain the above lifestyle and nutritional status in Korean adults, it is recommended that the breakfast consumption frequency should be 5–7 times a week.
Keywords: Korean Adult; Breakfast Frequency; Nutritional State; Lifestyle
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