Korean J Fam Pract. 2018; 8(3): 441-447  https://doi.org/10.21215/kjfp.2018.8.3.441
The Relationship between Shared Breakfast and Skipping Breakfast with Depression and General Health State in Korean Adults: The 2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Sun Hee Cho1, Hyejin Chun2,*, Hong Soo Lee1, Sang Wha Lee1, Kyung Won Shim1, Ji Yeon Lee1, A Ri Byun1, Hae Young Lee1
1Department of Family Medicine, Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul; 2Department of Family Medicine, CHA University, Bundang CHA Hospital, Seongnam, Korea
Hyejin Chun
Tel: +82-31-780-2958, Fax: +82-31-780-594
E-mail: fmewha@naver.com
ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6241-5453
Received: June 13, 2017; Revised: September 7, 2017; Accepted: September 13, 2017; Published online: June 20, 2018.
© The Korean Academy of Family Medicine. All rights reserved.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Background: In modern society, the incidence of mental illnesses, such as depression and anxiety disorder, increases every year. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of eating breakfast with other people on adult mental health, by comparing the mental health of adults who ate breakfast with others to that of those who ate alone or skipped breakfast, and to analyze the perceptions of the general health status in Korea.
Methods: This study was conducted using data from the second year of the sixth National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of the Korean people. For the analysis, 3,142 adults over 20 and under 65 years of age were selected. The subjects were divided into the following three groups according to their breakfast habits: sharing breakfast with a family member or others, not sharing breakfast, and skipping breakfast. The prevalence of depression was assessed using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire.
Results: Of the 3,142 subjects, 1,417 (41.7%) ate breakfast in the morning, 913 (28.9%) did not share breakfast, and 812 (29.4%) ate breakfast less than twice a week. The odds ratio (OR) for depression symptoms was not significant in the group that ate breakfast alone. However, when the disturbance variables were adjusted, the OR of a depression diagnosis increased 1.8–2.5 times in the group that skipped breakfast. Sharing breakfast and general health status did not differ significantly.
Conclusion: The group that skipped breakfast had an increased risk of depression symptoms. In particular, skipping breakfast had a significant relationship with symptoms of depression in women.
Keywords: Sharing Breakfast; Skipping Breakfast; Depression; General Health Status
  1. Park S, Cho MJ, Chang SM, Jeon HJ, Cho SJ, Kim BS, et al. Prevalence, correlates, and comorbidities of adult ADHD symptoms in Korea: results of the Korean epidemiologic catchment area study. Psychiatry Res 2011; 186: 378-83.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Crocq MA. The history of generalized anxiety disorder as a diagnostic category. Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2017; 19: 107-16.
    Pubmed KoreaMed
  3. Ministry of Health & Welfare. Korea health statistics 2012: Korea national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES V-3). Seoul: Ministry of Health & Welfare; 2013 Dec. 851 p.
  4. Park S. Gender-specific factors of suicide ideation among adolescents in the Republic of Korea: a nationally representative population-based study. Arch Psychiatr Nurs 2013; 27: 253-9.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Ikeda J, Yoneyama K, Shishioka I. Dietary habits, lifestyle and physical condition of junior high school students. Jpn J Public Health 1998; 45: 1099-114.
  6. O’Neil A, Quirk SE, Housden S, Brennan SL, Williams LJ, Pasco JA, et al. Relationship between diet and mental health in children and adolescents: a systematic review. Am J Public Health 2014; 104: e31-42.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  7. Elgar FJ, Craig W, Trites SJ. Family dinners, communication, and mental health in Canadian adolescents. J Adolesc Health 2013; 52: 433-8.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  8. Utter J, Denny S, Peiris-John R, Moselen E, Dyson B, Clark T. Family meals and adolescent emotional well-being: findings from a national study. J Nutr Educ Behav 2017; 49: 67-72.e1.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Adachi M. Theories of nutrition education and promotion in Japan: enactment of the “food education basic law”. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2008; 17 Suppl 1:180-4.
  10. Eisenberg ME, Olson RE, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Bearinger LH. Correlations between family meals and psychosocial well-being among adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004; 158: 792-6.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Fulkerson JA, Kubik MY, Story M, Lytle L, Arcan C. Are there nutritional and other benefits associated with family meals among at-risk youth? J Adolesc Health 2009; 45: 389-95.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  12. Franko DL, Thompson D, Affenito SG, Barton BA, Striegel-Moore RH. What mediates the relationship between family meals and adolescent health issues. Health Psychol 2008; 27(2S): S109-17.
  13. Ministry of Health & Welfare. Korea health statistics 2014: Korea national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES IV-2). Seoul: Ministry of Health Welfare; 2015 Dec. 451 p.
  14. Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Intern Med 2001; 16: 606-13.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  15. Aranceta J, Serra-Majem L, Ribas L, Pérez-Rodrigo C. Breakfast consumption in Spanish children and young people. Public Health Nutr 2001; 4:1439-44.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  16. Lien L. Is breakfast consumption related to mental distress and academic performance in adolescents? Public Health Nutr 2007; 10: 422-8.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  17. Smith AP. Breakfast and mental health. Int J Food Sci Nutr 1998; 49: 397-402.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  18. Smith AP. Breakfast cereal consumption and subjective reports of health. Int J Food Sci Nutr 1999; 50: 445-9.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  19. Smith AP. Breakfast cereal consumption and subjective reports of health by young adults. Nutr Neurosci 2003; 6: 59-61.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  20. O’Sullivan TA, Robinson M, Kendall GE, Miller M, Jacoby P, Silburn SR, et al. A good-quality breakfast is associated with better mental health in adolescence. Public Health Nutr 2009; 12: 249-58.
    Pubmed CrossRef

This Article

Author ORCID Information

Social Network Service