Korean J Fam Pract. 2018; 8(5): 747-751  https://doi.org/10.21215/kjfp.2018.8.5.747
The Association between Urine Specific Gravity and Obesity in Men in Korea: The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2010-2012
Jeong-Im Ha1, Ji-Hyun Kim1, Jae-Min Park2,*, Kyoung Jin Kim1, Eun-Jung Oh1, Jae-Kyung Choi1, Hyuk-Jung Kweon1, Dong-Yung Cho1
1Department of Family Medicine, Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine; 2Department of Family Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Jae-Min Park
Tel: +82-2-2030-7822, Fax: +82-2-2030-7748
E-mail: milkcandy82@naver.com
ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8873-8832
Received: July 12, 2017; Revised: August 10, 2017; Accepted: August 20, 2017; Published online: October 20, 2018.
© The Korean Academy of Family Medicine. All rights reserved.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Background: As the prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide, improving hydration status as a strategy to overcome weight-related problems is attracting attention. However, the relationship between hydration status and obesity remains uncertain. We aimed to investigate the association between inadequate hydration and obesity among men in Korea using urine specific gravity as a hydration marker.
Methods: In this study, we used data acquired from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted during 2010–2012, and included men aged 20–59 years. The primary outcome of interest was body mass index, which is measured in continuous values and categorized as either obese (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) or normal (body mass index <25 kg/m2). Individuals with urine-specific gravity values of ≥1.020 were considered inadequately hydrated. Linear and logistic regression analyses were performed with continuous body mass index and obesity status as the outcomes, respectively. Models were adjusted for known confounders, including age, regular exercise status, current smoking status, habitual coffee consumption, and regular alcohol intake.
Results: In this nationally representative sample (n=4,404), 48.02% of participants were inadequately hydrated. Individuals with inadequate hydration had a higher body mass index (P=0.048) than those who were adequately hydrated. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of the inadequate hydration group for obesity was 1.05 (0.84–1.32).
Conclusion: Inadequate hydration is positively associated with a higher body mass index but not with obesity.
Keywords: Inadequate Hydration; Body Mass Index; Obesity; Urine Specific Gravity
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