Korean J Fam Pract. 2018; 8(6): 855-859  https://doi.org/10.21215/kjfp.2018.8.6.855
Association between Carbohydrate to Fat Caloric Intake Ratio and Metabolic Indices of Cardiovascular Diseases
Hee Kyung Lim, Yong Kyun Roh*, Min Kyu Choi, Dong Hyun Kim, Joon Suk Byun, Hyeong Seok Kwak
Department of Family Medicine, Hallym University Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, Korea
Yong Kyun Roh
Tel: +82-2-829-5271, Fax: +82-2-829-5365
E-mail: rohyk@hallym.or.kr
ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6942-7657
Received: September 1, 2017; Revised: September 1, 2017; Accepted: October 7, 2017; Published online: December 20, 2018.
© The Korean Academy of Family Medicine. All rights reserved.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Background: Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and the prevalence of obesity is increasing. Accordingly, numerous weight loss diet strategies have been developed. Low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets have shown mixed results with respect to weight loss or metabolic indices of cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the association between the carbohydrate to fat caloric intake ratio and metabolic indices of cardiovascular disease.
Methods: The study evaluated 7,620 adults who underwent physical examinations, laboratory tests, and 24-hour dietary recall surveys as part of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2012 to 2014; the total caloric intake and nutrient ratios were then calculated. We analyzed the associations between quartiles of carbohydrate to fat caloric intake ratio and body mass index, lipid profiles, glycated hemoglobin levels, and fasting blood glucose levels.
Results: With aging, the ratio of carbohydrate to fat caloric intake increases and the total caloric intake decreases (P<0.01). After adjusting for confounding factors, no statistical significance was found in the association between quartile and body mass index, glycated hemoglobin levels, and triglyceride levels. However, comparted to the patients in the highest quartile, the patients in the lowest quartile had significantly increased total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (110.2±0.1 vs. 115.5±0.1 mg/dL), and high-density lipoprotein (50.0±0.3 vs. 52.8±0.4 mg/dL) levels (P<0.01).
Conclusion: We did not identify a positive association between the carbohydrate to fat caloric intake ratio and metabolic indices of cardiovascular disease.
Keywords: Carbohydrate; Fat; Carbohydrate to Fat Intake Ratio; Metabolic Indices
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