Korean Journal of Family Practice

Table. 3.

Multivariable logistic regression analysis for association between the frequency of high-sugar foods Intake and DM

Sugar intake frequency Patients without DM Patients with DM Univariate Multivariatea
Bread, rice cakes
Plain bread, morning bread
<1 time/week 66 (74.1) 57 (75.0) 1.000 1.000
1–2 times/week 17 (19.1) 14 (18.4) 1.049 (0.475–2.313) 0.636 (0.244–1.660)
3–6 times/week 3 (3.4) 4 (5.3) 0.648 (0.139–3.016) 0.586 (0.101–3.414)
≥1 time/day 3 (3.4) 1 (1.3) 2.591 (0.262–25.604) 2.429 (0.172–34.333)
Twisted bread stick, doughnut
<1 time/week 83 (93.3) 72 (94.7) 1.000 1.000
1–2 times/week 6 (6.7) 4 (5.3) 1.301 (0.353–4.793) 0.575 (0.099–3.345)
Songpyeon, honey rice cake
<1 time/week 87 (97.8) 73 (96.1) 1.000 1.000
1–2 times/week 1 (1.1) 2 (2.6) 0.420 (0.037–4.721) 0.798 (0.059–10.853)
3–6 times/week 1 (1.1) 1 (1.3) 0.839 (0.052–13.650) 0.271 (0.007–9.877)
Sticky rice cake
<1 time/week 88 (98.9) 75 (98.7) 1.000 1.000
1–2 times/week 1 (1.1) 1 (1.3) 0.852 (0.052–13.851) 0.555 (0.006–49.499)
Coffee
Americano (+syrup)
<1 time/week 57 (64.0) 54 (71.0) 1.000 1. 000
1–2 times/week 6 (6.7) 6 (7.9) 0.947 (0.288–3.118) 0.574 (0.142–2.324)
3–6 times/week 10 (11.2) 5 (6.6) 1.895 (0.608–5.901) 1.491 (0.368–6.035)
≥1 time/day 16 (18.0) 11 (14.5) 1.378 (0.587–3.234) 0.991 (0.372–2.639)
Coffee mix
<1 time/week 63 (70.8) 48 (63.2) 1.000 1.000
1–2 times/week 9 (10.1) 8 (10.5) 0.857 (0.308–2.386) 0.883 (0.264–2.957)
3–6 times/week 2 (2.3) 7 (9.2) 1.895 (0.608–5.901) 0.584 (0.106–3.217)
≥1 time/day 15 (16.8) 13 (17.1) 1.378 (0.587–3.234) 1.462 (0.563–3.794)
Drinks
Carbonated beverages(except zero, light beverages)
<1 time/week 70 (78.7) 64 (84.2) 1.000 1.000
1–2 times/week 14 (15.7) 6 (7.9) 2.133 (0.773–5.885) 0.611 (0.155–2.399)
3–6 times/week 1 (1.1) 3 (3.9) 0.305 (0.031–3.005) 0.045 (0.002–0.883)
≥1 time/day 4 (4.5) 3 (3.9) 1.219 (0.263–5.657) 0.410 (0.062–2.727)
Sports drink(Powerade, Toreta, VitaminWater)
<1 time/week 80 (89.9) 72 (94.8) 1.000 1.000
1–2 times/week 6 (6.7) 1 (1.3) 5.397 (0.635–45.894) 3.224 (0.252–41.209)
3–6 times/week 1 (1.1) 2 (2.6) 0.450 (0.040–5.068) 0.054 (0.003–1.049)
≥1 time/day 2 (2.3) 1 (1.3) 1.800 (0.160–20.273) 0.189 (0.013–2.827)
Fresh fruit juice
<1 time/week 76 (85.4) 72 (94.8) 1.000 1.000
1–2 times/week 8 (9.0) 1 (1.3) 7.579 (0.925–62.120) 0.634 (0.635–63.295)
3–6 times/week 3 (3.4) 2 (2.6) 1.421 (0.231–8.753) 0.680 (0.062–7.415)
≥1 time/day 2 (2.2) 1 (1.3) 1.895 (0.168–21.351) 3.718 (0.298–46.392)
Fermented drinks
Yogurt
<1 time/week 74 (83.2) 62 (81.6) 1.000 1.000
1–2 times/week 8 (9.0) 5 (6.6) 1.341 (0.417–4.307) 1.862 (0.472–7.352)
3–6 times/week 5 (5.6) 5 (6.6) 0.838 (0.232–3.028) 0.852 (0.193–3.760)
≥1 time/day 2 (2.2) 4 (5.3) 0.419 (0.074–2.365) 0.463 (0.057–3.643)
Yogurt (sugar-free)
<1 time/week 79 (88.8) 72 (94.7) 1.000 1.000
1–2 times/week 8 (9.0) 2 (2.6) 3.645 (0.749–17.735) 8.008 (1.298–49.427)
3–6 times/week 1 (1.1) 1 (1.3) 0.911 (0.056–14.841) 2.013 (0.079–51.161)
≥1 time/day 1 (1.1) 1 (1.3) 0.911 (0.056–14.841) 1.806 (0.103–31.605)
Yoplait (sugar-free)
<1 time/week 78 (87.6) 66 (86.8) 1.000 1.000
1–2 times/week 5 (5.6) 3 (4.0) 1.410 (0.325–6.124) 2.102 (0.403–10.953)
3–6 times/week 4 (4.5) 6 (7.9) 0.564 (0.153–2.04) 0.658 (0.152–2.856)
≥1 time/day 2 (2.3) 1 (1.3) 1.692 (0.150–19.081) 2.252 (0.187–27.138)
Snacks
Honey Twist Snack, Cho Chung U-GuA,Banana Kick, Sweet Potato Snack, Wafer
<1 time/week 81 (91.0) 73 (96.1) 1.000 1.000
1–2 times/week 6 (6.7) 2 (2.6) 2.704 (0.529–13.817) 4.687 (0.471–29.638)
3–6 times/week 2 (2.3) 1 (1.3) 1.802 (0.160–20.295) 0.809 (0.042–15.432)
Choco Chip Cookie, Waffles, Custard
<1 time/week 84 (94.4) 73 (96.1) 1.000 1.000
1–2 times/week 4 (4.5) 2 (2.6) 1.738 (0.309–9.765) 0.158 (0.058–5.747)
3–6 times/week 1 (1.1) 1 (1.3) 0.869 (0.054–14.42) 0.082 (0.004–1.669)
Candys
<1 time/week 77 (86.5) 63 (82.9) 1.000 1.000
1–2 times/week 3 (3.4) 7 (9.2) 0.351 (0.087–1.412) 0.182 (0.031–1.069)
3–6 times/week 6 (6.7) 4 (5.3) 1.227 (0.332–4.540) 0.927 (0.207–4.147)
≥1 time/day 3 (3.4) 2 (2.6) 1.227 (0.199–7.574) 2.616 (0.367–18.647)
Fruits
Apple
<1 time/week 61 (68.5) 42 (55.3) 1.000 1.000
1–2 times/week 13 (14.6) 15 (19.7) 0.597 (0.258–1.383) 0.633 (0.256–1.717)
3–6 times/week 7 (7.9) 8 (10.5) 0.602 (0.230–1.788) 0.798 (0.236–2.703)
≥1 time/day 8 (9.0) 11 (14.5) 0.501 (0.186–1.350) 0.947 (0.313–2.863)
Watermelon
<1 time/week 79 (88.8) 69 (92.0) 1.000 1.000
1–2 times/week 9 (10.1) 3 (4.0) 2.620 (0.682–10.067) 3.435 (0.812–14.524)
3–6 times/week 1 (1.1) 3 (4.0) 0.291 (0.030–2.864) 0.344 (0.033–3.574)
Banana
<1 time/week 68 (76.4) 63 (82.9) 1.000 1.000
1–2 times/week 8 (9.0) 9 (11.8) 0.824 (0.292–2.266) 0.857 (0.276–2.600)
3–6 times/week 5 (5.6) 1 (1.3) 4.632 (0.527–40.783) 4.601 (0.455–46.494)
≥1 time/day 8 (9.0) 3 (4.0) 2.471 (0.628–9.727) 3.693 (0.850–16.045)
Orange
<1 time/week 82 (92.1) 73 (96.1) 1.000 1.000
1–2 times/week 6 (6.8) 2 (2.6) 2.671 (0.523–13.646) 1.639 (0.267–10.054)
3–6 times/week 1 (1.1) 1 (1.3) 0.890 (0.055–14.490) 1.213 (0.070–20.901)
Peach
<1 time/week 78 (88.6) 69 (90.8) 1.000 1.000
1–2 times/week 4 (4.6) 4 (5.3) 0.885 (0.213–3.672) 0.958 (0.192–4.779)
3–6 times/week 5 (5.7) 1 (1.3) 4.422 (0.504–38.780) 7.119 (0.765–66.228)
≥1 time/day 1 (1.1) 2 (2.6) 0.442 (0.039–4.985) 0.277 (0.021–3.627)
Tomato
<1 time/week 64 (71.9) 57 (75.0) 1.000 1.000
1–2 times/week 15 (16.8) 7 (9.2) 1.908 (0.727–5.011) 2.573 (0.878–7.543)
3–6 times/week 7 (7.9) 8 (10.5) 0.779 (0.266–2.284) 1.392 (0.421–4.598)
≥1 time/day 3 (3.4) 4 (5.3) 0.668 (0.143–3.112) 1.237 (0.216–7.092)
Cherry tomato
<1 time/week 66 (75.0) 63 (82.9) 1.000 1.000
1–2 times/week 14 (15.9) 7 (9.2) 1.909 (0.723–5.039) 2.123 (0.707–6.377)
3–6 times/week 5 (5.7) 4 (5.3) 1.193 (0.723–5.039) 1.866 (0.429–8.120)
≥1 time/day 3 (3.4) 2 (2.6) 1.432 (0.231–8.856) 2.145 (0.305–15.077)
Mango
<1 time/week 88 (98.9) 74 (98.7) 1.000 1.000
3–6 times/week 1 (1.1) 1 (1.3) 0.840 (0.052–13.666) 0.344 (0.012–9.496)

Values are presented as unweighted number (unweighted percentage) or odds ratio (95% confidence interval).

DM, diabetes mellitus.

aMultivariable logistic regression adjusted for sex, age and BMI.

Korean J Fam Pract 2021;11:29~38 https://doi.org/10.21215/kjfp.2021.11.1.29
© KJFP