Korean Journal of Family Practice

Table. 3.

Factors related to osteoporosis

Variables Univariate Model 1a Model 2b
OR 95% CI P-value OR 95% CI P-value OR 95% CI P-value
Age (per 1 y increase) 1.09 1.08–1.10 <0.001 1.06 1.05–1.08 <0.001 1.06 1.05–1.08 <0.001
Income Low 3.53 2.67–4.69 <0.001 1.39 1.00–1.92 0.049 1.34 0.97–1.86 0.077
Middle-low 1.89 1.40–2.54 <0.001 1.26 0.92–1.72 0.148 1.24 0.91–1.70 0.179
Middle-high 0.69 0.49–0.96 0.029 0.53 0.37–0.75 <0.001 0.52 0.36–0.75 <0.001
High 1 1 1
Education ≤Primary school 4.98 3.29–7.52 <0.001 2.42 1.50–3.92 <0.001 2.39 1.47–3.87 <0.001
Middle school 2.65 1.70–4.14 <0.001 2.18 1.35–3.52 0.002 2.15 1.33–3.49 0.002
High school 1.20 0.76–1.92 0.435 1.26 0.79–2.02 0.339 1.25 0.78–2.01 0.347
≥University 1 1 1
Marital status Unmarried 1.32 0.59–2.94 0.503 1.38 0.55–3.46 0.493 1.33 0.53–3.28 0.548
Seperated/widowed/divorced 2.13 1.74–2.60 <0.001 1.02 0.81–1.28 0.896 1.00 0.79–1.26 0.985
Married 1 1 1
Occupation No 1.79 1.47–2.19 <0.001 1.05 0.84–1.31 0.666 1.03 0.83–1.28 0.788
Yes 1 1 1
Smoking Current 0.68 0.43–1.08 0.104 0.93 0.58–1.48 0.754 0.87 0.55–1.39 0.563
Past 0.78 0.46–1.32 0.354 0.70 0.41–1.22 0.208 0.66 0.38–1.16 0.152
Never 1 1 1
Alcohol intake ≥2/wk 0.368 0.24–0.56 <0.001 0.49 0.32–0.75 0.001 0.49 0.32–0.76 0.001
1–4/mo 0.537 0.40–0.72 <0.001 0.81 0.60–1.10 0.171 0.81 0.60–1.10 0.181
<1/mo 1 1 1
Aerobic exercise No 1.36 1.10–1.68 0.004 0.98 0.77–1.25 0.878 0.98 0.78–1.25 0.888
Yes 1 1 1
Strength exercise No 1.55 1.13–2.14 0.007 1.10 0.80–1.53 0.550 1.09 0.75–1.50 0.622
Yes 1 1 1
BMI <18.5 1.46 0.81–2.63 0.203 1.41 0.75–2.63 0.284 1.40 0.75–2.61 0.291
18.5–24.9 1.03 0.84–1.25 0.793 0.84 0.67–1.05 0.119 0.84 0.67–1.05 0.119
≥25 1 1 1
Oral contraceptives Yes 1.16 0.94–1.43 0.173 0.96 0.76–1.21 0.720 0.95 0.75–1.20 0.650
No 1 1 1
Hypertension Yes 1.62 1.31–2.00 <0.001 0.87 0.69–1.10 0.244 0.88 0.69–1.10 0.256
No 1 1 1
Diabetes mellitus Yes 1.16 0.90–1.49 0.251 0.77 0.59–1.01 0.062 0.76 0.58–1.00 0.048
No 1 1 1

OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; BMI, body mass index.

aModel 1: Adjusted for age, household income quartile, education level, marital status, economic activity, smoking status, frequency of drinking, aerobic exercise, strength exercise, BMI, oral contraceptives, hypertension, diabetes mellitus. bModel 2: Adjusted for age, household income quartile, education level, marital status, economic activity, smoking status, frequency of drinking, aerobic exercise, strength exercise, BMI, oral contraceptives, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, depression.

Korean J Fam Pract 2021;11:449~456 https://doi.org/10.21215/kjfp.2021.11.6.449
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