Korean Journal of Family Practice

Table. 3.

Energy and nutrient intakes of subjects according to the meal frequency

Variable 3MRD 2MRD 1MRD P-value
Total (n=3,036) 2,070 852 114
Energy intake (kcal)** 2,104.71±24.49 1,856.50±31.82 1,614.90±101.40 <0.001a
Water (g) 752.04±10.25 726.94±15.30 720.41±34.63 0.338
Dietary fiber (g)* 19.80±0.26 18.60±0.41 17.97±0.86 0.014
Carbohydrates (g)** 303.72±1.57 293.63±2.73 288.57±6.11 0.001
Protein (g) 72.35±0.64 72.05±0.82 73.52±2.82 0.852
Fat (g)** 53.22±0.58 57.19±1.03 59.89±2.00 <0.001
Saturated Fat (g) 19.11±0.28 20.02±0.42 21.40±1.09 0.052
Cholesterol (mg) 271.66±6.70 261.07±6.44 277.30±20.77 0.436
Total sugars (g) 69.79±1.03 70.45±1.63 73.36±3.59 0.640
Sodium (mg) 2,864.72±33.10 2,854.97±51.36 3,002.91±119.29 0.504
Potassium (mg)** 2,387.18±22.04 2,198.05±29.01 2,279.29±79.94 <0.001
Calcium (mg)* 529.19±7.95 507.14±11.22 467.04±21.64 0.021
Phosphorous (mg)** 1,058.83±8.43 1,004.84±11.04 989.10±22.50 <0.001
Iron (mg)** 10.80±0.14 9.94±0.18 9.50±0.44 <0.001
Vitamin A (μgRE)** 377.65±9.48 331.27±10.18 343.96±22.63 0.004
Beta-carotene (μg)** 1,878.30±43.68 1,670.58±57.06 1,840.20±168.41 0.009
Retinol (μg)* 220.28±8.70 191.24±9.08 188.88±18.56 0.048
Thiamine (mg)** 1.37±0.02 1.27±0.02 1.18±0.05 <0.001
Riboflavin (mg) 1.63±0.02 1.62±0.03 1.58±0.06 0.735
Niacin (mg) 12.09±0.14 12.01±0.22 12.19±0.63 0.936
Vitamin C (mg) 59.79±1.82 53.10±2.79 71.90±11.76 0.080

Values are presented as estimated mean±standard error adjusted with age, sex, and energy intake.

MRD, meals regular diet.

aAdjusted with age and sex.

P-values are obtained by general linear model analysis in complex sample design. *Signifies P<0.05. **Signifies P<0.01.

Korean J Fam Pract 2022;12:158~166 https://doi.org/10.21215/kjfp.2022.12.3.158
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