Korean Journal of Family Practice

Table. 1.

Characteristics of study participants

Characteristic Male (n=347) Female (n=512) P-value
Age (y) <0.001
19–64 44.9 (3.3) 67.5 (2.4)
≥65 55.1 (3.3) 32.5 (2.4)
Education level 0.001
Elementary school 25.4 (2.5) 28.6 (2.3)
Middle school 13.9 (1.3) 13.5 (1.7)
High school 25.2 (2.9) 35.7 (2.6)
≥College 35.5 (3.0) 22.2 (2.3)
Monthly house income 0.248
Lowest quartile 27.0 (2.6) 23.2 (2.3)
2nd to 4th quartile 73.0 (2.6) 76.8 (2.3)
Smoking status <0.001
Nonsmokera 84.6 (2.4) 96.6 (1.0)
Current smoker 15.4 (2.4) 3.4 (1.0)
Heavy alcohol drinkerb 12.0 (2.2) 1.3 (0.6) <0.001
Aerobic physical activity (%)c 40.8 (3.2) 39.5 (2.6) 0.738
Handgrip strength (kg) 33.7±0.5 20.9±0.3 <0.001
Low handgrip strengthd 15.7 (2.0) 24.8 (2.1) 0.002
Masticatory difficulty (+) 70.2 (2.8) 62.0 (2.4) 0.031
Body mass index (kg/m2) 23.7±0.2 23.7±0.2 0.995
Hypertension 45.5 (2.9) 37.4 (2.5) 0.032
Diabetes mellitus 21.7 (2.6) 11.2 (1.6) <0.001

Values are presented as % (standard error) or mean±standard error.

aDefined as never-smoker and ex-smoker combined. bDefined as drinking >7 drinks in one place at least twice per week for male or drinking >5 drinks in one place at least twice per week for female. cDefined as engaged in at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity per week, at least 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity per week, or a combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity (e.g., 1 minute of vigorous-intensity physical activity and 2 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity) for at least 75 minutes per week. dDefined as Low handgrip strength was divided into two categories. (<26 kg for male, <18 kg for female) Handgrip strength was defined as the average handgrip strength of the dominant hand.

P-values were obtained by chi-square test or independent t-test.

Korean J Fam Pract 2022;12:179~184 https://doi.org/10.21215/kjfp.2022.12.3.179
© KJFP