Korean J Fam Pract. 2018; 8(3): 391-397  https://doi.org/10.21215/kjfp.2018.8.3.391
Association of Coffee Consumption and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in Middle-Aged Koreans without Renal Impairment: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2013-2014
Seon Min Park, Yu Jung Park, Duk Chul Lee*
Department of Family Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Duk Chul Lee
Tel: +82-2-2228-2331, Fax: +82-2-362-2473
E-mail: FAITH@yuhs.ac
ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9166-1813
Received: May 22, 2017; Revised: August 18, 2017; Accepted: August 28, 2017; Published online: June 20, 2018.
© The Korean Academy of Family Medicine. All rights reserved.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Background: Previous studies have suggested that anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effect of caffeine has an influence on renal function. However, the effect of coffee consumption on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) without renal impairment has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between coffee consumption and eGFR in middle-aged Koreans without renal impairment using data from a representative nationwide survey.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Koreans aged 45 to 64 years, who enrolled for the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2013–2014. The participants were classified into three groups based on the amount of coffee consumption as reported on the food frequency questionnaire: (specify) category 1, 2, and 3. eGFR calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation was used for evaluation of kidney function.
Results: In all the three categories of daily coffee consumption, eGFR showed a significant increase with the increase in coffee consumption in middle-aged Korean women (P=0.006). However, no such trend was observed in middle-aged Korean men. In middle-aged women, eGFR increased significantly in individuals consuming ≥2 cups per day, compared with those consuming <1 cup per day, after adjusting for other compounding factors (β=2.614, P=0.041).
Conclusion: Coffee consumption and estimated glomerular filtration rate showed a significant positive relationship only in middle-aged Korean women consuming ≥2 cups coffee per day.
Keywords: Coffee; Glomerular Filtration Rate; Kidney Disease; Middle-Aged; Koreans
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