Korean J Fam Pract 2019; 9(2): 139-146  https://doi.org/10.21215/kjfp.2019.9.2.139
Relationship between Dietary Intake and Depression among Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2014
Suh-Yeon Park, A Lum Han*, Sae-Ron Shin, Jae Eun Eo
Department of Family Medicine, Wonkwang University Hospital, Iksan, Korea
A Lum Han, Tel: +82-63-859-1300, Fax: +82-63-859-1306, E-mail: qibosarang@naver.com, ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6509-7953
Received: March 15, 2018; Revised: August 23, 2018; Accepted: March 13, 2019; Published online: April 20, 2019.
© The Korean Academy of Family Medicine. All rights reserved.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Background: Many studies have assessed the relationship between each nutrient element and depression independently, but few have assessed the effect of dietary intake on depression, as diagnosed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). This study investigated the relationship between dietary intake and depression, which was diagnosed using the PHQ-9.
Methods: This study used the second data set (2014) from the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES). Our analysis included 5,897 persons who answered the PHQ-9, aged 20 to 60 years. They were categorized into either a male or female group, which were then subdivided into a depression group of patients who were diagnosed using the PHQ-9, and those without depression (control group). The patients’ dietary intakes were obtained using the 24-hr recollection method in KNHNES. The relationship between dietary intake and depression was investigated for each group.
Results: In males, dietary intake was not associated with depression in both groups, except in relation to carotene. While in females, the depression group had lower fiber and vitamin C dietary intake than the control group (fiber P=0.015, vitamin C P=0.020). The dietary intakes of all other nutrients had no associations between the depression and control groups, in both males and females.
Conclusion: According to our results, low dietary intake of fiber and vitamin C may be associated with depression in females. These results suggest that a diet regimen that includes fiber and vitamin C may help prevent and reduce depression in females.
Keywords: Depression; Patient Health Questionnaire; Diet; Fiber; Vitamin C
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