Korean J Fam Pract 2019; 9(5): 467-470  https://doi.org/10.21215/kjfp.2019.9.5.467
Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Severity of Depression Scored with Patient Health Questionnaire-9 in Men Older Than 50 Years
Minsik Lee*
Department of Family Medicine, Serim General Hospital, Incheon, Korea
Minsik Lee
Tel: +82-32-509-5555, Fax: +82-504-443-6880
E-mail: misrandil15749@gmail.com
ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9276-0805
Received: June 24, 2019; Accepted: July 29, 2019; Published online: October 20, 2019.
© The Korean Academy of Family Medicine. All rights reserved.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Background: This study aimed to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome and depression severity based on the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) score in men aged >50 years.
Methods: In this study, we used data of 1,230 individuals from the Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VII-1) 2016 conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We diagnosed metabolic syndrome in accordance with National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines using waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting serum triglyceride level, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and fasting glucose level in men aged >50 years (mean± standard deviation: 64.6±8.8 years), and their PHQ-9 scores were classified as mild and severe (cutoff, 10).
Results: The mean waist circumference, fasting glucose level, triglyceride level, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level were 87.1±8.2 cm, 109.8±28.3 mg/dL, 155.9±123.9 mg/dL, and 46.5±12.2 mg/dL, respectively. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 124.7±15.9 mmHg and 76.2±10.7 mmHg, respectively. The mean body mass index, was 24.2±2.9 kg/m2. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 43.7%. The mean PHQ-9 score was 2.0±3.3. The prevalence of severe depression with a score of >10 was 4.2%. Metabolic syndrome and depression were related (P<0.05). The adjusted odds ratio for metabolic syndrome was 0.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3–0.9). However, age (95% CI, 0.9–1.0), sleep duration during weekdays (95% CI, 0.9–1.0), and sleep duration during weekends (95% CI, 0.9–1.0) were not related.
Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome was associated with depression in men aged >50 years in this study.
Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome; National Institutes of Health; Depression; Patient Health Questionnaire; The Sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
  1. Reaven GM. Banting lecture 1988. Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes 1988; 37: 1595-607.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Kaplan NM. The deadly quartet. Upper-body obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. Arch Intern Med 1989; 149: 1514-20.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  3. DeFronzo RA, Ferrannini E. Insulin resistance. A multifaceted syndrome responsible for NIDDM, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Diabetes Care 1991; 14: 173-94.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Singh AK, Kari JA. Metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2013; 22: 198-203.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Sun F, Tao Q, Zhan S. Metabolic syndrome and the development of chronic kidney disease among 118 924 non-diabetic Taiwanese in a retrospective cohort. Nephrology (Carlton) 2010; 15: 84-92.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Wong ND, Nelson JC, Granston T, Bertoni AG, Blumenthal RS, Carr JJ, et al. Metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and incidence and progression of coronary calcium: the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis study. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2012; 5: 358-66.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  7. Trevisan M, Liu J, Bahsas FB, Menotti A. Syndrome X and mortality: a populationbased study. Risk Factor and Life Expectancy Research Group. Am J Epidemiol 1998; 148: 958-66.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  8. Gupta AK, Dahlof B, Sever PS, Poulter NR; Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Blood Pressure Lowering Arm Investigators. Metabolic syndrome, independent of its components, is a risk factor for stroke and death but not for coronary heart disease among hypertensive patients in the ASCOT-BPLA. Diabetes Care 2010; 33: 1647-51.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  9. Lim S, Shin H, Song JH, Kwak SH, Kang SM, Won Yoon J, et al. Increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korea: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 1998-2007. Diabetes Care 2011; 34: 1323-8.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  10. Kinder LS, Carnethon MR, Palaniappan LP, King AC, Fortmann SP. Depression and the metabolic syndrome in young adults: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Psychosom Med 2004; 66: 316-22.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Jeon JH, Kim SH. Depression, stress and how they are related with health behaviors and metabolic syndrome among women over 40 years. J Korean Soc Matern Child Health 2012; 16: 263-73.
  12. Alberti KG, Zimmet PZ. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus provisional report of a WHO consultation. Diabet Med 1998; 15: 539-53.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  13. Korean Society for the Study of Obesity. Clinical obesity. 3rd ed. Seoul: Korea Medical Book Publishing Company; 2008.
  14. Zung WW. A self-rating depression scale. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1965; 12: 63-70.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JB. Validation and utility of a self-report version of PRIME-MD: the PHQ primary care study. Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders. Patient Health Questionnaire. JAMA 1999; 282: 1737-44.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  16. Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Intern Med 2001; 16: 606-13.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  17. Choi HS, Choi JH, Park KH, Joo KJ, Ga H, Ko HJ, et al. Standardization of the Korean version of patient health questionnaire-9 as a screening instrument for major depressive disorder. J Korean Acad Fam Med 2007; 28: 114-9.

This Article

Author ORCID Information

Social Network Service