Korean J Fam Pract 2020; 10(1): 9-14  https://doi.org/10.21215/kjfp.2020.10.1.9
Effects of Short-Term Cardiovascular Endurance Exercise on Body Composition and Blood Pressure
Hyunjung Kim, Youngmi Eun, Se-Hong Kim*
Department of Family Medicine, St. Vincent’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea
Se-Hong Kim
Tel: +82-31-820-3179, Fax: +82-31-848-3179
E-mail: iron1600@catholic.ac.kr
ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6465-8993
Received: September 24, 2019; Revised: December 23, 2019; Accepted: December 26, 2019; Published online: February 20, 2020.
© The Korean Academy of Family Medicine. All rights reserved.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Background: Regular exercise can help in the prevention and treatment of such diseases. However, most individuals exercise only rarely or irregularly. This study examined the effects of short-term cardiovascular endurance exercise on body composition and blood pressure in adults who visited an exercise prescription clinic.
Methods: From among 505 adults who visited the University Hospital family medicine and exercise prescription clinic from March 2005 to March 2011, data of 105 adults who regularly participated in the cardiovascular endurance exercise program were collected and analyzed. Changes in body composition and blood pressure were measured before and after the 8-week exercise program (types of exercise: stationary bicycles and treadmills; exercise intensity: 60%–85% maximum oxygen consumption; exercise frequency: 3–5 times a week; and exercise duration: 20–45 minutes per session).
Results: Obesity, as defined by the percentage of body fat (measured by bioimpedance analysis), was 71.4% and 80.5% for male and female, respectively, and obesity, as defined by body mass index, was 53.5% and 40.2% for male and female, respectively. Percentage of body fat, body mass index, weight, abdominal circumference, diastolic blood pressure, and systolic blood pressure were statistically significantly lower after the exercise program. In addition, with the exercise program, the waist-hip ratio decreased and the lean body mass increased. However, the differences were not statistically significant.
Conclusion: Short-term cardiovascular endurance exercises can have a positive effect on body composition and blood pressure. Therefore, doctors should more actively recommend exercise guidance.
Keywords: Body Composition; Cardiovascular Endurance Exercise; Obesity; Blood Pressure
  1. Lee KS, Park JH. Burden of disease in Korea during 2000-10. J Public Health (Oxf) 2014; 36: 225-34.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Haskell WL, Lee IM, Pate RR, Powell KE, Blair SN, Franklin BA, et al.; American College of Sports Medicine; American Heart Association. Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation 2007; 116: 1081-93.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  3. Warburton DE, Nicol CW, Bredin SS. Health benefits of physical activity:the evidence. CMAJ 2006; 174: 801-9.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  4. Park WH. Benefits of regular exercise and exercise prescription for health. J Korean Med Assoc 2000; 43: 460-7.
  5. WHO. Active: a technical package for increasing physical activity. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2018.
  6. Carlson SA, Fulton JE, Pratt M, Yang Z, Adams EK. Inadequate physical activity and health care expenditures in the United States. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2015; 57: 315-23.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  7. Shin HC. Cardiovascular risk and lifestyle advice from physician: rates recalled by patients and predicting factors. J Korean Acad Fam Med 2001; 22:1656-69.
  8. Glasgow RE, Eakin EG, Fisher EB, Bacak SJ, Brownson RC. Physician advice and support for physical activity: results from a national survey. Am J Prev Med 2001; 21: 189-96.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Logsdon DN, Lazaro CM, Meier RV. The feasibility of behavioral risk reduction in primary medical care. Am J Prev Med 1989; 5: 249-56.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  10. Engin A. The definition and prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Adv Exp Med Biol 2017; 960: 1-17.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Kim SY. The definition of obesity. Korean J Fam Med 2016; 37: 309.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  12. Zemen FJ, Ney DM. Applications in medical nutrition therapy. Englewood Cliffs: Merrill; 1994.
  13. The Korean nutrition society. Food nutrition assessment table. Seoul: The Korean Nutrition Society; 1995.
  14. Blair SN, Kohl HW 3rd, Barlow CE, Paffenbarger RS Jr, Gibbons LW, Macera CA. Changes in physical fitness and all-cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy and unhealthy men. JAMA 1995; 273: 1093-8.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2016 health behavior and chronic disease statistics [Internet]. Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2017 [cited 2019 Nov 20].
  16. Jennings G, Nelson L, Nestel P, Esler M, Korner P, Burton D, et al. The effects of changes in physical activity on major cardiovascular risk factors, hemodynamics, sympathetic function, and glucose utilization in man: a controlled study of four levels of activity. Circulation 1986; 73: 30-40.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  17. Suter E, Marti B, Tschopp A, Wanner HU, Wenk C, Gutzwiller F. Effects of self-monitored jogging on physical fitness, blood pressure and serum lipids:a controlled study in sedentary middle-aged men. Int J Sports Med 1990; 11:425-32.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  18. National Institutes of Health. Health implications of obesity. National Institutes of Health consensus development conference statement. Natl Inst Health Consens Dev Conf Consens Statement 1985; 5: 1-7.
  19. Hubert HB, Feinleib M, McNamara PM, Castelli WP. Obesity as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease: a 26-year follow-up of participants in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 1983; 67: 968-77.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  20. Ballor DL, Keesey RE. A meta-analysis of the factors affecting exercise-induced changes in body mass, fat mass and fat-free mass in males and females. Int J Obes 1991; 15: 717-26.

This Article