Korean J Fam Pract 2020; 10(2): 103-109  https://doi.org/10.21215/kjfp.2020.10.2.103
Associations between Family Function and Smartphone Addiction Proneness in Middle School Students
So-Yeon Gil, Min-Sun Kim, Kwan-Woo Park, Hea-Jin Lee, Woo-Joo Park, Mi-Kyeong Oh*
Department of Family Medicine, Gangneung Asan hospital, Gangneung, Korea
Mi-Kyeong Oh
Tel: +82-33-610-3325, Fax: +82-33-641-8130
E-mail: omk@gnah.co.kr
ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3602-9588
Received: September 3, 2019; Revised: February 6, 2020; Accepted: February 22, 2020; Published online: April 20, 2020.
© The Korean Academy of Family Medicine. All rights reserved.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Background: Smartphone usage time has been increasing every year causing smartphone addiction, also known as cell phone dependency. This study investigated and analyzed the effects of family characteristics on adolescent smartphone use.
Methods: The subjects were 908 middle school students in Gangneung whose legal guardians agreed to participate in the study. We investigated general characteristics, family structure, smartphone usage time of family members, using Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (K-SAPS), Family APGAR, and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale III (FACES III). The participants were classified into three groups according to the scores of the SAPS: addiction proneness, addiction tendency group, and normal user.
Results: The prevalence of the addiction proneness group was 47 (5.2%). The K-SAPS scores were higher in the following categories: female (P<0.001); more monthly allowance (P<0.05); lower academic performance (P<0.001); fewer hours of exercise (P<0.001); longer smartphone usage time (P<0.001); and younger owners of smartphones (P<0.05). In family characteristics, the K-SAPS scores were significantly higher in single parent families (P<0.05), longer smartphone usage time of mother and siblings (P<0.05), less time spent watching TV with family members (P<0.05), more exposure to smartphones in childhood (P<0.05), and less time spent with mother (P<0.05). The K-SAPS scores were significantly higher when family APGAR, family adaptability, and cohesion scores were lower (P<0.001).
Conclusion: This study indicated that the smartphone addiction in middle school students is closely related to smartphone usage of family members and family functions. Therefore, family behavior that can be corrected should be considered for counseling to prevent smartphone addiction.
Keywords: Smartphone Addiction; Family Function; Middle School Students; Family APGAR; Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale III; Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale
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